Expresses ideas, qualities etc. Truth, happiness, danger, beliefs.
The subject of verb performs the action.
The dog chased the cat. (see passive)
Modify nouns (describe nouns). Blue dress.
A phrase which modifies or describes noun/p.n.
John is the teacher with the brushed back hair.
Provides information about verb – how, when, where, why. Carefully, yesterday, etc.
Word group provides information about verb. She was speaking in an unusual way.
Subordinate clause – functions as adverbial.
Definite (the) Indefinite (a, an)
Position of adjective before a noun.
The green olives. (See predicative)
Helping verb. He is going. She will come.
A group of words which contains a subject and a finite verb.
Groups of people/things etc family, team.
general words referring to people, things, places, concepts, states
Has a main (principal, independent) clause and
one or more subordinate clauses. Mary likes
Tasmania because it is very peaceful.
Has two or more main clauses joined by a co-
ordinate conjunction. Mary likes apples and
Tom likes bananas.
Have physical reality – book, chair, music.
A joining word. (see next entry)
Joins words, phrases, clauses equal in status.
Mary and John. Mary went but John stayed.
Nouns which can be counted. Book/books.
This book, these books, that man, those men.
Replaces a noun. I will take these with me.
Used with a noun – eg articles, demonstratives,
possessives. the book, these books, my books
The action of verb passes onto the object.
She ate the chocolate ice cream.
Carries the inflections for subject and tense.
Every complete sentence needs a finite verb.
Can be modified to show degree. Hot – Hotter
Some verbs (ditransitive) have two objects.
She gave the boy a ticket. (IO boy) (DO a ticket)
Base form of verb – to go, to leave, to be etc
Adding affixes to mark grammatical meaning.
Example: He goes. They worked.
Used for asking questions. Who, Which, What
A verb that does not take an object. She ran.
Can, could, may, might, should, must, will etc
refers to a person, place, thing concept or state.
Phrase that fills the function of a noun. The little boy with red hair is happy.
The subject affected by action of verb (rather than doer of verb).
The cat was chased by the dog.
Non-finite form of verb. It’s raining. I’ve been.
Part of Speech
Word Class – noun, verb, adjective, etc.
1st person, 2nd , 3rd etc. I, you, he
Used to refer to persons or things. I, you, he, etc.
A group of two or more words which can act as a single part of speech.
Verb combined with preposition or adverb which forms a separate verb with own meaning.
He called off the meeting.
Part of sentence which is not the Subject.
Position of adjective after the verb.
The olives are green. (See attributive)
Usually in front of noun/noun phrase. On the
hill, over the road, etc. Indicate direction, time,
Phrase that begins with preposition. Can
function as adverbial or adjectival phrase.
ing form of verb – singing
Used in place of a noun. Pro (for) noun.
Helping verb. Used with other verbs to make
tenses, passive forms and indicate person.
It is raining. He has travelled. He didn’t come.
Name of specific individual, place, etc. Sydney
Each other, one another
Myself, himself, themselves. I did it myself.
Group of words used to make a statement, ask
a question, give an order. Begins with capital
letter and ends with full stop, question mark etc.
The part of sent which is focus or doer of verb.
Linked to subject by Verb to be (or linking verb).
She is a teacher. They are happy.
Dependent clause introduced by subordinator.
It cannot stand alone.
Joins dependent clause to principal or
independent clause. Because, when, if etc.
High- Highest, Reliable – Most reliable.
Indicates when the action or event occurred.
He studies every day. He studied last week.
A verb which has a direct object.
She beat the drum. (SVO)
Nouns which cannot be counted and usually do not have a plural form. Rice, coffee, paint, advice etc.
Doing or action word. Express states and mental
process. They travelled. She feels happy.
A phrase that consists of verbs/auxiliaries.
Used interchangeably with the term ‘Part of Speech’.